Black Guerilla Family

The Black Guerilla Family (also known as the Black Family or the Black Vanguard) is an African American prison and street gang founded in 1966 by George Jackson and W.L. Nolen while they were incarcerated at San Quentin State Prison in Marin County, California.

Black Guerilla Family
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Founded 1966
Founded by George Jackson, W.L. Nolen
Founding location San Quentin State Prison
Years active 1966–present
Territory Most US prisons
Ethnicity Africans & African Americans
Membership 100-300 full members with 50,000 associates in and out of prison
Criminal activities Drug trafficking[1] auto theft,[1] robbery,[1] and homicide[1]
Allies Symbionese Liberation Army, Nuestra Familia, Black Disciples,[2][3] , Bloods,[2] Black Liberation Army, Weather Underground,[2] Latin Kings Dead Man Inc., Gangster Disciples.[2]
Rivals American Mafia, Aryan Brotherhood,[2] Mexican Mafia, Texas Syndicate, Mexikanemi, Gulf Cartel, Serbian mafia,Crips

Philosophy and goals

Inspired by Marcus Garvey, the Black Guerilla Family (BGF) was characterized as an ideological African-American Marxist Leninist[4] revolutionary organization composed of prisoners. It was founded with the stated goals of eradicating racism, maintaining dignity in prison, and overthrowing the United States government.

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History

The Black Guerrilla Family was founded by George Jackson in San Quentin State Prison during the Black Power movement. The group later became a recognizable organized crime force in the United States.

Huey P. Newton murder

On August 22, 1989, co-founder and leader of the Black Panther Party for Self Defense, Huey P. Newton was fatally shot outside 1456 9th St in West Oakland by 24-year-old Black Guerilla Family member, Tyrone Robinson.[5] Relations between Newton and factions within the Black Guerilla Family had been strained for nearly two decades. Former Black Panther Party members who became BGF members in jail had become disenchanted with Newton for his perceived abandonment of imprisoned Black Panther members and allegations of Newton’s fratricide within the party. In his book, Shadow of the Panther, Hugh Pearson alleges that Newton was addicted to crack cocaine, and his extortion of local BGF drug dealers to obtain free drugs added to their animosity.[6]

Robinson was convicted of the murder in August 1991 and sentenced to 32 years for the crime.[7]

Fay Stender attempted murder

In 1979, former BGF lawyer Fay Stender was shot five times by recently paroled Black Guerilla Family member Edward Glenn Brooks for what Brooks said was Stender’s betrayal of George Jackson. Brooks forced Stender to state: “I, Fay Stender, admit I betrayed George Jackson and the prison movement when they needed me most” just before he shot her.[8] Stender was left paralyzed below the waist and in constant pain by the assault and committed suicide in Hong Kong shortly after she testified against Brooks.[9]

Baltimore unrest

Baltimore police claimed that the Black Guerrilla Family, the Bloods, and the Crips were “teaming up” to target police officers.[10] Later, however, leaders of both the Bloods and the Crips denied the allegations,[11] released a video statement asking for calm and peaceful protest in the area,[12] and joined with police and clergy to enforce the curfew.[13] At one occasion, gang members helped to prevent a riot at the Security Square Mall by dispersing attempted rioters.[14] On other occasions, rival gang members helped each other to protect black-owned businesses, black children, and reporters, diverting rioters to Chinese- and Arab-owned businesses instead.[15]

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Islamic fundamentalism is now in Southern Mexico, Latin America and Europe

Islamic fundamentalism is now in Southern Mexico, Latin America and Europe

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Islamic fundamentalism has been defined variously as a movement of Muslims who harken back to earlier times and seek to return to the fundamentals of the religion[1] and live similarly to how the prophet Muhammad and his companions lived. Islamic fundamentalists favor “a literal and originalist interpretation” of the primary sources of Islam (the Quran and Sunnah),[2] and seek to eliminate (what they perceive to be) “corrupting” non-Islamic influences from every part of their lives,[3] and see “Islamic fundamentalism” as a pejorative term used by outsiders for Islamic revivalism and Islamic activism.

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Mujahideen is now in Southern Mexico, Latin America and Europe

Mujahideen (Arabic: مجاهدين‎‎ mujāhidīn) is the plural form of mujahid (Arabic: مجاهد‎‎), the term for one engaged in Jihad (literally, “striving” or “struggling,” especially with a praiseworthy aim). Its widespread use in English began with reference to the guerrilla-type military outfits led by the Islamist Afghan warriors in the Soviet–Afghan War, and now extends to other jihadist outfits in various countries.

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Islamic terrorism or radical Islamic terrorism now in Southern Mexico, Latin America and Europe

Islamic terrorism or radical Islamic terrorism now in Southern Mexico, Latin America and Europe

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Islamic terrorism or radical Islamic terrorism, is defined as any terrorist act, set of acts or campaign committed by groups or individuals who profess Islamic or Islamist motivations or goals.[1] Islamic terrorists justify their violent tactics through interpreting the Quran and Hadith according to their own goals and intentions.[2][3]

The highest numbers of incidents and fatalities caused by Islamic terrorism occur in Iraq, Afghanistan, Nigeria, Pakistan and Syria.[4] In 2015 four Islamic extremist groups were responsible for 74% of all deaths from terrorism: ISIS, Boko Haram, the Taliban and Al-Qaeda, according to the Global Terrorism Index 2016.[5] In recent decades, such incidents have occurred on a global scale, affecting not only Muslim-majority states in Africa and Asia, but also Europe, Russia, Australia, Canada, and the United States. Such attacks have targeted Muslims and non-Muslims.[6] In a number of the worst-affected Muslim-majority regions, these terrorists have been met by armed, independent resistance groups,[7] state actors and their proxies, and elsewhere by condemnation coming from prominent Islamic figures.[8][9][10]

The literal use of the phrase “Islamic terrorism” is disputed. Such use in Western political speech has variously been called “counter-productive,” “highly politicized, intellectually contestable” and “damaging to community relations.”[11] However, others have referred to the refusal to use the term as an act of “self-deception”, “full-blown censorship” and “intellectual dishonesty

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Islamic extremism and Radical Islam and Political Islam are now in Southern Mexico, Latin America and Europe

Islamic extremism and Radical Islam and Political Islam are now in Southern Mexico, Latin America and Europe

Islamic extremism has been defined by the British government as any form of Islam that opposes “democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty and mutual respect and tolerance of different faiths and beliefs.”[1] Related terms include “Islamist extremism” and Islamism.[2]

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On the other hand, many oppose the use of term, fearing it could “de-legitimize” the Islamic faith in general.[3] Some have criticized political rhetoric that associates non-violent Islamism (political Islam) with terrorism under the rubric of “extremism”.[2]

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Salafi is now in Southern Mexico, Latin America and Europe

The Salafi movement or Salafist movement or Salafism is an ultra-conservative[1] reform[2] branch[3][4] or movement within Sunni Islam[5] that developed in Arabia in the first half of the 18th century against a background of European colonialism. It advocated a return to the traditions of the “devout ancestors” (the salaf). Some scholars define this movement as Modernist Salafism.

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The movement emerged as a liberal one, in later 18th century Egypt[6] – this variant is nowadays qualified as Modernist Salafism – before taking its contemporary orientation in the 1920s,[7] which ascribes itself in the ideology lineage of Ibn Taymiyya and has merged with the wahhabism which is now considered as synonymous.[8]

Some 21st-century scholars have suggested there was a medieval form of Salafism, but there is little evidence of this. Generally scholars believe the Modernist form has been superseded since the mid-20th century by what is called Purist Salafism.

The Salafist doctrine can be summed up as taking “a fundamentalist approach to Islam, emulating Muhammad and his earliest followers – al-salaf al-salih, the ‘pious forefathers’.”[9] “They reject religious innovation or bid’ah, and support the implementation of sharia (Islamic law).”[9] The movement is often divided into three categories: the largest group are the purists (or quietists), who avoid politics; the second largest group are the activists, who get involved in politics; and the smallest group are jihadists, who form a small minority.[9]

The Salafi movement is often described as being synonymous with Wahhabism, but Salafists consider the term “Wahhabi” to be derogatory.[10] At other times, Salafism has been described as a hybrid of Wahhabism and other post-1960s movements.[11] Salafism has become associated with literalist, strict and puritanical approaches to Islam. Particularly in the West it is associated with Salafi jihadists, who espouse jihad as a legitimate expression of Islam against those they deem to be enemies of Islam.[12][page needed] Traditional Salafism concentrated in Saudi Arabia is opposed to the newer groups calling themselves people of Salafism, such as the Muslim Brotherhood concentrated in Egypt, whose leaders such as Sayyid Qutb call for revolutions and secularism in deep contrast with Saudi Arabia historically.

In legal matters, Salafis are divided between those who, in the name of independent legal judgement (ijtihad), reject strict adherence (taqlid) to the four Sunni schools of law (madhahib), and others who remain faithful to these.[13]

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Islamism is now in Southern Mexico, Latin America and Europe

Islamism is now in Southern Mexico, Latin America and Europe

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Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.[1] The term can refer to diverse forms of social and political activism advocating that public and political life should be guided by Islamic principles,[1][2] or more specifically to movements which call for full implementation of sharia.[3] It is commonly used interchangeably with the terms political Islam or Islamic fundamentalism.[3] In Western media usage the term tends to refer to groups who aim to establish a sharia-based Islamic state, often with implication of violent tactics and human rights violations, and has acquired connotations of political extremism.[3]

Different currents of Islamist thought have advocated a “revolutionary” strategy of Islamizing society through exercise of state power or a “reformist” strategy of re-Islamizing society through grass-roots social and political activism.[4] These movements have “arguably altered the Middle East more than any trend since the modern states gained independence”, redefining “politics and even borders” according to Robin Wright.[5]

Islamists may emphasize the implementation of Sharia (Islamic law);[6] pan-Islamic political unity,[6] including an Islamic state;[7] or selective removal of non-Muslim, particularly Western military, economic, political, social, or cultural influences in the Muslim world that they believe to be incompatible with Islam.[6]

Graham Fuller has argued for a broader notion of Islamism as a form of identity politics, involving “support for [Muslim] identity, authenticity, broader regionalism, revivalism, [and] revitalization of the community.”[8] Some authors hold the term “Islamic activism” to be synonymous and preferable to “Islamism”,[9] and Rached Ghannouchi writes that Islamists prefer to use the term “Islamic movement” themselves.[10]

Central and prominent figures of modern Islamism include Hasan al-Banna, Sayyid Qutb, Abul Ala Maududi,[11] and Ruhollah Khomeini.[12] Some Islamist thinkers emphasize peaceful political processes, whereas Sayyid Qutb in particular called for violence, and his followers are generally considered Islamic extremists. However, Qutb, unlike modern extremists, denounced the killing of innocents.[13] Following the Arab Spring, some Islamist currents became heavily involved in democratic politics,[5][14] while others spawned “the most aggressive and ambitious Islamist militia” to date, ISIS

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